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Nouns are names of people, places or things.

Common nouns are words like sister, city, car.

Proper nouns are names like Susan, Los Angeles, Ford. We start all proper nouns with a capital letter (S LA F).

PRONOUNS are words that we use when we don't say the name. There are four main kinds of pronouns: Subject Pronouns, Object Pronouns, Possessive Pronouns and Reflexive Pronouns. Possessive Adjectives aren't pronouns, but we study them with pronouns.

Subject Pronouns

I, you, he, she, it, we, they

Object Pronouns

me, you, him, her, it, us, them

Possessive Adjectives

my, your, his, her, its, our, their

Possessive Pronouns

mine, yours, his, hers, --- , ours, theirs

I gave the book to you. I gave you the book.

You gave the book to me. You gave me the book.

It is my book. The book is mine.

It is your book. The book is yours.

They painted their house. That house is theirs.

This is our dog. This dog is ours.

The teacher helped us with our math assignment.

He or she helped us.

Reflexive Pronouns

myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself,

ourselves, themselves

I hurt myself. (I did it to me!) Me lastime'.

I burned myself. Me queme'.

You hurt yourself. Te lastimaste.

You burned yourself. Te quemaste.

He hurt himself. El se lastimo'.

He burned himself. El se quemo'.

She hurt herself. Ella se lastimo'.

She burned herself. Ella se quemo'.

It hurt itself. (maybe an animal)

We hurt ourselves. Nosotros nos lastimamos.

We burned ourselves. Nos quemamos.

They hurt themselves. Ellos se lastimaron.

They burned themselves. Se quemaron.


Adjectives are words that describe nouns.

                                     the old car or the new car

                                     a nice person

                                     a beautiful flower

The adjectives usually go before the noun, except when we say, "the car is old or the car is new, that person is nice, the flower is beautiful," etc.

Comparative and Superlative Forms of Adjectives

The brown car is older than the white car.

El auto de color cafe es mas viejo que el auto blanco.

It is the oldest car on this street.

Es el auto mas viejo de esta calle.

Our teacher is nicer than the other teachers.

Nuestro maestro es mas simpatico que los otros maestros.

He is the nicest person I know.

El es la persona mas simpatica que yo conozco.


older (comparative)

oldest (superlative)


nicer (comparative)

nicest (superlative)

THE RULE: short words, one-syllable words, add -er in the comparative form and -est in the superlative form.


more beautiful (comparative)

the most beautiful (superlative)


more interesting (comparative)

the most interesting (superlative)

THE RULE: long words, three syllables or more,

use more and most to make the comparative

and the superlative.

Two-syllable words sometimes use -er and -est and sometimes they use more and most. The first method is more common.

Two-syllable words that end in y do this:

pretty                       prettier                      prettiest

funny                       funnier                      funniest

crazy                       crazier                       craziest


good          better            best                                                  (better than, the best)

bueno                                                                                         mejor que, lo mejor

bad            worse           worst                                                 (worse than, the worst)

malo                                                                                              peor que, lo peor