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To Be (ser o estar) es tal vez el verbo más importante y más irregular, no sólo en inglés, sino también en todos los idiomas que yo he estudiado. En tiempo presente, los verbos en inglés tienen un sólo cambio: agregan "s" en la tercera persona singular (he, she, it). El verbo to be cambia también en la primera persona singular ( I ). Otros verbos tienen solamente una forma en el tiempo pasado. Este verbo tiene dos. 

Present Tense - Affirmative


I am (I'm) - yo soy, yo

                  estoy

you are (you're) -

                     tú eres, tú estás

                     usted es, usted

                     está

                    ustedes son,

                    ustedes están

he is (he's) - él es, él está

she is (she's) - ella es, ella está

it is (it's) - es, está

we are (we're) -

                    nosotros somos,

                    nosotros estamos

they are (they're) - ellos son,

                              ellos están


Interrogative: Am I? Are you? Is he? Is she? Is it? Are we? Are they?




Past Tense - Affirmative


I was - yo era, yo estaba

you were - tú eras, tú

                  estabas,

                  usted era, usted

                  estaba

                  Uds. eran, Uds.

                   estaban

he was - él era, él estaba

she was - ella era, ella

                  estaba

it was - era, estaba

we were - nosotros

                 éramos,

                 nosotros

                    estábamos

they were - ellos eran,

                      ellos estaban


Interrogative: Was I? Were you? Was he? Was she? Was it? Were we? Were they?




Present Perfect Tense


I have been (I've been) -

                        yo he sido, yo he

                         estado

you have been (you've been) -

                         tú has sido, tú has

                         estado,

                          Ud. ha sido, Ud. ha

                          estado,

                          Uds. han sido, Uds.

                          han estado

he has been (he's been) -

                         él ha sido, él ha

                         estado

she has been (she's been) - ella ha sido, ella ha

                             estado

it has been (it's been) -

                             ha sido, ha estado

we have been (we've been) -

                             nosotros hemos

                              sido,

                              nosotros hemos

                              estado

they have been (they've been) -

                              ellos han sido,

                              ellos han estado



Interrogative: Have I been? Have you been? Has he been? Has she been? Has it been? Have we been? Have they been?



How have you been?

¿Cómo has estado?

Where have you been?

¿Dónde has estado?

Present Tense -

Negative


I'm not


you're not, you aren't






he's not, he isn't

she's not, she isn't


it's not, it isn't

we're not, we aren't


they're not, they aren't




Interrogative: Am I not? Aren't you? Isn't he? Isn't she? Isn't it? Aren't we? Aren't They?



Past Tense - Negative


I wasn't

you weren't







he wasn't

she wasn't


it wasn't

we weren't





they weren't




Interrogative: Wasn't I? Weren't you? Wasn't he? Wasn't she? Wasn't it? Weren't we? Weren't they?



Present Perfect Tense - Negative


I haven't been


you haven't been










he hasn't been


she hasn't been


it hasn't been


we haven't been






they haven't been

Interrogative: Haven't I been?Haven't you been? Hasn't he been? Hasn't she been? Hasn't it been? Haven't we been? Haven't They been?


Para decir ¿Conoces San Diego?

decimos en inglés, "Have you been to San Diego?"

Uno de los usos de este verbo es para describir el clima. We use this verb to talk about the weather.


It's hot today. - Hace calor hoy.

It wasn't hot yesterday. - No hacía calor ayer.

Temperatures:             hot - caliente                             cold - frío

                                   warm - templado                       cool - fresco

It has been very cold this winter.

Ha hecho mucho frío este invierno.

It's windy. Hace viento. It's very windy. Hace mucho viento.

It's sunny. Está soleado.

It's cloudy. Está nublado.

It's foggy. Hay niebla.

It's raining. Está lloviendo.

It's snowing. Está nevando.

Hail (jéial) is falling. Está cayendo granizo.


TO BE CUANDO SE TRADUCE TENER

Other expressions with "to be"


EDAD: How old are you? ¿Cuántos años tiene usted?

             I'm fifteen years old. Tengo quince años.



OTROS USOS:


I'm hungry. Tengo hambre. Are you hungry? ¿Tienes

                   hambre?

I'm thirsty. Tengo sed.

I'm hot. Tengo calor.

I'm cold. Tengo frío.

I'm scared. -es igual que- I'm afraid. Tengo miedo.

You're lucky! ¡Tú tienes suerte! o ¡Usted tiene suerte!

I was lucky. Yo tenía suerte.

You're right. Tienes razón.